Byzantine Cross-Patriarchal Cross-Eastern Orthodox Church

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MEANING: A variant of the Christian cross, sometimes referred to as a Patriarchal cross, appears in Byzantine Greek and Eastern European symbolism and is used by Eastern Orthodox churches. The additional crossbar at the top represented the inscription board nailed above Christ's head; the footboard symbolized the fates of the thieves crucified with Christ: the one who repented is represented by the raised end and the one who blasphemed is represented by the lowered end. (This is one of many interpretations associated with this historic cross.)